how to Write a Summary < ,, كيف تكتب تلخيص لموضوع ؟؟ - شهية الطبخ المغربي

how to Write a Summary < ,, كيف تكتب تلخيص لموضوع ؟؟

السلام عليكم ورحمة الله وبركاته


اليوم جبت لكم درس مهم جدااا ,, ومن أهم الدروس الي اتعلمتها في الجامعة


وأتمني الاستفادة للجميع ,,,

What is a good summary?

1. A good summary should give an objective outline of the whole piece of writing. It should answer basic questions about the original text such as "Who did what, where, and when?", or "What is the main idea of the text?", "What are the main supporting points?", "What are the major pieces of evidence?". It should not be a paraphrase of the whole text using your own words.

2. You should not give your own ideas or criticisms as part of the summary. However, if you want to comment on a piece of writing it is usual to begin by summarizing it as objectively as possible.

3. A good summary should not include selected examples, details, or information which are not relevant to the piece of writing taken as a whole.

4. A good summary should probably include the main idea of each paragraph, and the main evidence supporting that idea, unless it is not relevant to the article or essay as a whole. A summary does not need a conclusion, but if the original ends with a message to the reader this should not be left out.

5. A good summary may use key words from the original text but should not contain whole phrases or sentences from the original unless quotation marks are used. Quotations should only be made if there is a reason for using the original words, for example because the choice of words is significant, or because the original is so well expressed.

6. Rearranging the words used in the original, or keeping the same structure but just substituting different words is not enough. You must express the sense of the original using your own words and structures.


How to write a summary of a short piece of writing:


1. As you read, underline all the important points and and all the important evidence. For example, you could look for all the topic sentences.

2. List or cluster the main idea of the whole piece, the main supporting ideas, and the main evidence for each idea. Be careful to use your own words rather than copying or just rearranging. Do not include too much detail.

3. Change the order if necessary, so that the main idea comes first and is followed by the supporting ideas and evidence in a logical sequence. Omit any repetitions.

4. If the original uses 'I' replace this with the writer's actual surname, "the writer", or "s/he". If the original uses 'you', substitute "people" or "they".


5. You should now be ready to write the summary. 
Start with a sentence that a) identifies the writer and the piece of writing, for example by giving the writer's name, the title of the piece and where/when it appeared, and b) gives the main idea. Use transition words to join everything together


Readthe passage carefully. Determine its structure. Identify the author's purpose in writing. (This will help you to distinguish between more important and less important information.)Reread, label, and underline.. This time divide the passage into sections or stages of thought. The author's use of paragraphing will often be a useful guide. Label, on the passage itself, each section or stage of thought. Underline key ideas and termsWrite one-sentence summaries, on a separate sheet of paper, of each stage of thought
Write a thesis--a one-sentence summary of the entire passage..
 The thesis should express the central idea of the passage, as you have determined it from the preceding steps. You may find it useful to keep in mind the information contained in the lead sentence or paragraph of most newspaper stories--the what, who, why, where, when, and how of the matter. For persuasive passages, summarize in a sentence the author's conclusion. For descriptive passages, indicate the subject of the description and its key features. Note: In some cases a suitable thesis may already be in the original passage. If so, you may want to quote it directly in your summaryWrite the first draft of your summary by (1) combining the thesis with your list of one-sentence summaries or (2) combining the thesis with one-sentence summaries plus significant details from the passage. In either case, eliminate repetition. Eliminate less important information. Disregard minor details, or generalize them. Use as few words as possible to convey the main ideasCheck your summary against the original passage, and make whatever adjustments are necessary for accuracy and completenessRevise your summary, inserting transitional words and phrases where necessary to ensure coherence. Check for style. Avoid series of short, choppy sentences. Combine sentences for a smooth, logical flow of ideas. Check for grammatical correctness, punctuation, and spelling


Remember:
  • Do not rewrite the original piece.
  • Keep your summary short.
  • Use your own wording.
  • Refer to the central and main ideas of the original piece.
  • Read with who, what, when, where, why and how questions in mind.
  • Do not put in your opinion of the issue or topic discussed in the original piece. Often, instructors ask students to put their opinions in a paragraph separate from the summary