The United Kingdom - شهية الطبخ المغربي

The United Kingdom

The United Kingdom
United Kingdom is a country in northwestern Europe. It consists of four
political divisions-England, Scotland, and Wales, which make up the island
of Great Britain, and Northern Ireland, which occupies the northeastern
part of the island of Ireland. The nation's official name is the United
Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. When people refer to the
country, most shorten its name to the United Kingdom, the U.K., or
Britain. London is the capital and largest city.
The United Kingdom has only about 1 percent of the world's people. But
the United Kingdom has a rich history. The British started the Industrial
Revolution, a period of rapid industrialization that began in the 1700's.
They founded the largest empire in history. They have produced some of
the world's greatest scientists, explorers, artists, and political leaders.
The landscape of the United Kingdom varies dramatically. Northern
Scotland is a wild, windswept region, broken by long arms of the sea that
reach far inland. Much of Northern Ireland has low mountains and rolling
fields. Wales is famous for its rugged mountains and deep, green valleys.
Most of England is covered by rolling plains, laid out in a patchwork of
fields and meadows. The coastline is a shifting scene of steep cliffs, golden
beaches, jagged rocks, and fishing towns tucked in sheltered bays. The
United Kingdom has magnificent old castles and modern nuclear
laboratories, snug villages and sprawling cities, and ancient universities
and new factories.
The English Channel separates the island of Great Britain from France.
This narrow stretch of water helped shape the character and history of the
British people. It helped protect the United Kingdom from invasion and
gave the people a feeling of security. In 1066, a group of Vikings called
the Normans sailed across the channel from northwestern France and
conquered England. After the Norman Conquest, no enemy ever again
crossed the channel and invaded the country.
Cut off from the rest of Europe by the sea and secure from invasion, the
British developed their own character and way of life. They came to
respect privacy and to value old traditions. They developed a dry wit, a
love for personal freedom, and a high degree of self-criticism. The British
have shown themselves at their best-brave and united-in times of crisis.
Their courage against German bombs and overwhelming odds during
World War II (1939-1945) won the admiration of the world.
The history of the United Kingdom is the story of how a small country
became the world's most powerful nation-and then declined. In the
1700's, the Industrial Revolution made the United Kingdom the world's
richest manufacturing country. The British ruled the seas and were the
world's greatest traders. By 1900, they had an empire that covered about
a fourth of the world's land and included about a fourth of its people. The
British spread their way of life throughout their empire.
Then came the 1900's-and the shock of two crippling world wars. The
British Empire began to break up as the United Kingdom's colonies sought
independence. The United Kingdom faced one economic crisis after
another. Today, the United Kingdom is still a leading industrial and trading
nation. But it is no longer the world power it once was.
This article describes the United Kingdom's people, geography, and
economy and its history since 1707, when England and Wales first
officially united with Scotland. For detailed information on each division.

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