The Nation - شهية الطبخ المغربي

The Nation

The Nation
Political divisions. The United States consists of 50 states and the
District of Columbia. The District of Columbia is a piece of land set aside
by the federal government for the nation's capital, Washington, D.C. For a
list of the states, see the table with this article titled Facts in brief about
the states.
In area, population, and economic output, some of the states are
comparable to many nations. The United States has a federal system of
government, which gives the states many powers that national
governments have in most other countries. For example, the states have
broad control over public education and the establishment of civil and
criminal laws.
Regions. The states of the United States, excluding Alaska and Hawaii,
are often divided into seven major regions. Each region is made up of
states that have similarities in geography, climate, economy, traditions,
and history. The regions are: (1) New England, (2) the Middle Atlantic
States, (3) the Southern States, (4) the Midwestern States, (5) the Rocky
Mountain States, (6) the Southwestern States, and (7) the Pacific Coast
States. For a list of the states in each region, see the table titled Regions
of the United States in this article.
New England is a small region in the northeast corner of the country that
is known for charming rural villages, picturesque fishing harbors, and
colorful autumn scenery. It was the nation's first industrial center, and
manufacturing is still a leading source of income. Industrial cities dot
southern New England. Much of the land is too hilly or rocky to grow
crops. But New England produces large amounts of dairy and poultry
products and is famous for its maple syrup. Many tourists visit the region
to see its historic sites-especially those from colonial times-and to enjoy
its natural beauty.
Many New Englanders, especially in the rural north, are descendants of
English Puritans who settled the region during the 1600's. The more
densely populated southern section of New England has people of many
backgrounds, including African, Irish, Italian, and French Canadian. The
southern section includes Boston, New England's largest city by far.
The Middle Atlantic States Region stretches inland from the Atlantic Ocean
southwest of New England. Deepwater harbors help make the region a
major center of international trade. The busiest harbor is at New York
City, the largest city in the United States. Factories in and near such
Middle Atlantic cities as-in order of size-New York City, Philadelphia,
Pittsburgh, Buffalo, and Newark produce a wide variety of goods. Coal
mining and related industries are important economic activities in the
western part of the Middle Atlantic States Region. Farms dot hillsides and
fertile plains in various parts of the region. Forested mountains, sandy
seashores, scenic lakes and rivers, historic sites, and big-city attractions
draw many visitors to the region.
The Middle Atlantic States Region ranks as the nation's most densely
populated area. Its urban population includes people of varied European
backgrounds, and large groups of people of black African, Latin American,
and Asian ancestry. Many of the region's rural dwellers are of British
The Southern States Region is an area of rolling hills, mountains, and
plains bordered by broad beaches along the Atlantic Ocean and the Gulf of
Mexico. Until the mid-1900's, the region's economy was based heavily on
agriculture. Such warm-weather crops as sugar cane, rice, tobacco, andespecially-
cotton contributed greatly to the economy. Agriculture has
retained importance in the South. However, an industrial boom that began
in the mid-1900's greatly increased manufacturing and improved the
balance of the region's economy. Tourists flock to coastal resorts in the
South-especially in winter, when temperatures are usually relatively mild.
Baltimore is the largest city of the region. Jacksonville, Memphis,
Washington, D.C., Nashville, New Orleans, and Charlotte rank next in size.
Washington, D.C., is not part of a state, but it is in the Southern States
Large numbers of Southerners are descended from early English, Irish,
and Scottish immigrants. From the 1600's to the 1800's, many Africans
were brought to the region to work on plantations as slaves. Today, large
numbers of African Americans live in the Southern States Region. Many
Southerners have a strong sense of regional loyalty and take pride in the
South's history and traditions.
The Midwestern States Region is a vast area of generally flat land that
covers much of the center of the United States. The Midwest is famous for
its large stretches of fertile soil. Farms in the Midwestern States Region
produce enormous quantities of corn, wheat, and other crops; and also
dairy products and livestock. In addition, the Midwest has a number of
large industrial cities. The cities include, in order of size, Chicago, Detroit,
Indianapolis, Columbus, Milwaukee, and Cleveland.
The Mississippi River system, the Great Lakes, and many railroads give
the region an excellent transportation network. Lakes and rivers-some of
which are set among rolling hills and rugged bluffs-provide numerous
recreation areas.
The Midwestern States Region has a varied population. Its rural areas
include large groups of descendants of settlers from England, Germany,
Norway, Scotland, Sweden, and eastern and southern Europe. The
region's urban population includes many descendants of people who came
from northern, southern, and eastern Europe. Blacks make up a large
urban minority group. Other large ethnic groups in the cities include
African Americans, Mexican Americans, and Asian Americans.
The Rocky Mountain States Region lies west of the Midwest. It is named
for the rugged, majestic Rocky Mountains, which cut through it. The
region also has areas of deserts, plains, and plateaus. Although much of it
is a thinly populated wilderness, some of its cities and towns are among
the nation's fastest-growing areas. Denver ranks as the region's largest
city by far.
Rich deposits of gold, silver, and other metals first attracted settlers to the
Rocky Mountain States Region. Mining remains an important economic
activity, but such services as health care, hotels, and data processing are
now the chief sources of income. Cattle and other livestock graze on dry,
grassy ranges, and farmers grow a variety of crops in the Rocky Mountain
States Region. Many tourists visit the region to enjoy its scenic beauty
and numerous ski resorts.
The population of the Rocky Mountain States Region includes people of
European descent, African Americans, Mexican Americans, and American
Indians. Mormons, whose ancestors founded a religious community in
Utah in the 1800's, form an important cultural group in the Rocky
Mountain States Region.
The Southwestern States Region spreads over a vast area that is
sometimes called the "wide open spaces." There, cattle graze on huge
ranches, and vast fields of cotton and other crops soak up rays of blazing
sunshine. However, petroleum has brought the region most of its wealth.
The region has large deposits of petroleum and natural gas, as well as
various other minerals. In the 1900's, refineries and petrochemical
factories led the way to industrialization in the Southwest.
The industrialization has helped bring about much urban growth in the
Southwestern States Region. The region includes many of the nation's
fastest-growing cities. Its largest cities are, in order of size, Houston,
Dallas, Phoenix, San Antonio, El Paso, and Austin. The region also has
many retirement communities. Tourist attractions in the Southwest
include huge, unspoiled areas of incredible natural beauty, such as the
Grand Canyon and the Painted Desert.
Many cultures come together in the Southwest. The population includes
people of various European backgrounds, as well as African Americans,
Mexican Americans, and American Indians.
The Pacific Coast States Region, which borders the Pacific Ocean, is known
for its dense forests, rugged mountains, and dramatic ocean shore. The
scenic beauty and relatively mild climate encourage an outdoor lifestyle
enjoyed by both residents and tourists.
Fertile valleys in the Pacific Coast States Region produce a large part of
the nation's fruits, nuts, vegetables, and wine grapes. The region also has
abundant timber, minerals, and fish. Much manufacturing takes place in
its large cities, which include-in order of size-Los Angeles, San Diego, San
Jose, San Francisco, and Seattle.
The discovery of gold and the opening of the Oregon Territory in the mid-
1800's brought a stream of settlers to the Pacific Coast. New residents,
many drawn by the area's booming computer industry, have continued to
pour in ever since. Today, the population includes people of European,
African American, and Mexican American ancestry. The region also has
more people of Asian ancestry than any other part of the United States,
and a large number of American Indians.
Outlying areas. The United States has possession of various island
territories in the Caribbean Sea and the Pacific Ocean. Some of them,
such as Guam and the Virgin Islands, have a large degree of selfgovernment.
Puerto Rico, one of the areas, is a commonwealth associated
with the United States that has been given wide powers of self-rule by the
U.S. Congress. American Samoa, Guam, Puerto Rico, and the Virgin
Islands each send to Congress a representative who votes only in
committees. See the table titled Main outlying areas of the United States
in this article.