Sentence Patterns from a Functional Perspective - شهية الطبخ المغربي
7

Sentence Patterns from a Functional Perspective

FORM AND
FUNCTION
PAGE 8/9
In order to summarise what we have learned, we will now look at some typical sentence patterns from a functional perspective. We will then conclude this section by looking at some untypical patterns, on the next page. As we've seen, the Subject is usually (but not always) the first element in a sentence, and it is followed by the verb:
Pattern 1
Subject
Verb
David

The dog

Susan
sings

barked

yawned
In this pattern, the verb is not followed by any Object, and we refer to this as an intransitive verb. If the verb is monotransitive, it takes a Direct Object, which follows the verb:
Pattern 2
Subject
Verb
Direct Object
David

The professor

The jury
sings

wants

found
ballads

to retire

the defendant guilty
 
In the ditransitive pattern, the verb is followed by an Indirect Object and a Direct Object, in that order:
Pattern 3
Subject
Verb
Indirect Object
Direct Object
The old man

My uncle

The detectives 
gave

sent

asked
the children

me

Amy
some money

a present

lots of questions
Adjuncts are syntactically peripheral to the rest of the sentence. They may occur at the beginning and at the end of a sentence, and they may occur in all three of the patterns above:
Pattern 4

(Adjunct)
Subject
Verb
Indirect Object
Direct Object
(Adjunct)
[1] Usually David sings     in the bath
[2] Unfortunately the professor wants   to retire this year
[3] At the start of the trial the judge showed the jury the photographs in a private chamber
Pattern 4 is essentially a conflation of the other three, with Adjuncts added. We have bracketed the Adjuncts to show that they are optional. Strictly speaking, Objects are also optional, since they are only required by monotransitive and ditransitive verbs, as in the examples [2] and [3] above.


Match the sentences to the patterns:
1. The wall collapsed
A. Subject -- Verb
B. Subject -- Verb -- Direct Object
C. Subject -- Verb -- Indirect Object -- Direct Object
D. (Adjunct) -- Subject -- Verb -- Direct Object
E. (Adjunct) -- Subject -- Verb -- (Adjunct)
2. During the war, many people lost their homes
A. Subject -- Verb
B. Subject -- Verb -- Direct Object
C. Subject -- Verb -- Indirect Object -- Direct Object
D. (Adjunct) -- Subject -- Verb -- Direct Object
E. (Adjunct) -- Subject -- Verb -- (Adjunct)
3. I promised the children a trip to the zoo
A. Subject -- Verb
B. Subject -- Verb -- Direct Object
C. Subject -- Verb -- Indirect Object -- Direct Object
D. (Adjunct) -- Subject -- Verb -- Direct Object
E. (Adjunct) -- Subject -- Verb -- (Adjunct)
4. When he was 12, David moved to London
A. Subject -- Verb
B. Subject -- Verb -- Direct Object
C. Subject -- Verb -- Indirect Object -- Direct Object
D. (Adjunct) -- Subject -- Verb -- Direct Object
E. (Adjunct) -- Subject -- Verb -- (Adjunct)
5. Paul hired a bicycle
A. Subject -- Verb
B. Subject -- Verb -- Direct Object
C. Subject -- Verb -- Indirect Object -- Direct Object
D. (Adjunct) -- Subject -- Verb -- Direct Object
E. (Adjunct) -- Subject -- Verb -- (Adjunct)


...
          
 

Sentence Patterns from a Functional Perspective


Sentence Patterns from a Functional Perspective

FORM AND
FUNCTION
PAGE 8/9
In order to summarise what we have learned, we will now look at some typical sentence patterns from a functional perspective. We will then conclude this section by looking at some untypical patterns, on the next page. As we've seen, the Subject is usually (but not always) the first element in a sentence, and it is followed by the verb:
Pattern 1
Subject
Verb
David

The dog

Susan
sings

barked

yawned
In this pattern, the verb is not followed by any Object, and we refer to this as an intransitive verb. If the verb is monotransitive, it takes a Direct Object, which follows the verb:
Pattern 2
Subject
Verb
Direct Object
David

The professor

The jury
sings

wants

found
ballads

to retire

the defendant guilty
 
In the ditransitive pattern, the verb is followed by an Indirect Object and a Direct Object, in that order:
Pattern 3
Subject
Verb
Indirect Object
Direct Object
The old man

My uncle

The detectives 
gave

sent

asked
the children

me

Amy
some money

a present

lots of questions
Adjuncts are syntactically peripheral to the rest of the sentence. They may occur at the beginning and at the end of a sentence, and they may occur in all three of the patterns above:
Pattern 4

(Adjunct)
Subject
Verb
Indirect Object
Direct Object
(Adjunct)
[1] Usually David sings     in the bath
[2] Unfortunately the professor wants   to retire this year
[3] At the start of the trial the judge showed the jury the photographs in a private chamber
Pattern 4 is essentially a conflation of the other three, with Adjuncts added. We have bracketed the Adjuncts to show that they are optional. Strictly speaking, Objects are also optional, since they are only required by monotransitive and ditransitive verbs, as in the examples [2] and [3] above.


Match the sentences to the patterns:
1. The wall collapsed
A. Subject -- Verb
B. Subject -- Verb -- Direct Object
C. Subject -- Verb -- Indirect Object -- Direct Object
D. (Adjunct) -- Subject -- Verb -- Direct Object
E. (Adjunct) -- Subject -- Verb -- (Adjunct)
2. During the war, many people lost their homes
A. Subject -- Verb
B. Subject -- Verb -- Direct Object
C. Subject -- Verb -- Indirect Object -- Direct Object
D. (Adjunct) -- Subject -- Verb -- Direct Object
E. (Adjunct) -- Subject -- Verb -- (Adjunct)
3. I promised the children a trip to the zoo
A. Subject -- Verb
B. Subject -- Verb -- Direct Object
C. Subject -- Verb -- Indirect Object -- Direct Object
D. (Adjunct) -- Subject -- Verb -- Direct Object
E. (Adjunct) -- Subject -- Verb -- (Adjunct)
4. When he was 12, David moved to London
A. Subject -- Verb
B. Subject -- Verb -- Direct Object
C. Subject -- Verb -- Indirect Object -- Direct Object
D. (Adjunct) -- Subject -- Verb -- Direct Object
E. (Adjunct) -- Subject -- Verb -- (Adjunct)
5. Paul hired a bicycle
A. Subject -- Verb
B. Subject -- Verb -- Direct Object
C. Subject -- Verb -- Indirect Object -- Direct Object
D. (Adjunct) -- Subject -- Verb -- Direct Object
E. (Adjunct) -- Subject -- Verb -- (Adjunct)


...
          
 

هناك تعليق واحد:

  1. The patterns for these sentences are shown in the table below:



    (Adjunct)


    Subject


    Verb


    Indirect Object


    Direct Object


    (Adjunct)

    Sentence 1 The wall collapsed = Pattern A
    Sentence 2 During the war many people lost their homes = Pattern D
    Sentence 3 I promised the children a trip to the zoo = Pattern C
    Sentence 4 When he was 12 David moved to London = Pattern E
    Sentence 5 Paul hired a bicycle = Pattern B

    Notice that only the Subject and the Verb slots are filled in every sentence. Adjuncts are always optional, and Objects only occur with certain verbs.

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